CHHATTISAGARH ENGLISH

Chhattisgarh is a state in India. It was formed on 1 November 2000 and is the 26th state of India. Earlier it was under Madhya Pradesh. According to Dr. Hiralal’s opinion, Chhattisgarh ‘Chedishgarh’ may be degenerated. It is said that once upon a time there were 36 strongholds in this region, hence the name Chhattisgarh. But even after the increase in the number of strongholds, there was no change in the name, Chhattisgarh is such a state of India which has been given the status of ‘Mahatari’ (mother).[2] There are two regions in India whose name is due to special reasons. Changed – one was ‘Magadha’ which became “Bihar” due to the abundance of Buddhist viharas and the other was ‘Dakshina Kosala’ which became “Chhattisgarh” due to the inclusion of thirty-six garhs. But both these regions have been making India proud since ancient times. “Chhattisgarh” has been the center of development of various cultures since Vedic and Puranic times. The ancient temples and their ruins here indicate that Vaishnava, Shaivism, Shakta, Buddhist cultures have had influence in different periods. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel production.[3]Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest developing states in India.[4]

nomenclature

“Chhattisgarh” is not an ancient name, the practice of this name started in the Maratha period during the 18th century. In ancient times Chhattisgarh was known as “Dakshin Kosal”.

In all the historical inscriptions, literary and writings of foreign travellers, this region has been called Dakshin Kosala. The first use of “Chhattisgarh” in official documents was in 1795. [5]

There is no single opinion among historians regarding the etymology of the word Chhattisgarh. Some historians believe that during the Kalchuri period Chhattisgarh was officially divided into 36 garhs, these garhs being an official unit, not a fort or a fort. The name Chhattisgarh was derived on the basis of these “36 garhs”. (1 garh = 7 barho = 84 grams)
history
Main article: Chhattisgarh during Ramayana

Chhattisgarh is a part of the ancient Dakshina Kosala and its history goes back to the Puranic period. The ‘Kosal’ region of the mythological period was divided into two parts by the name ‘Uttar Koshal’ and ‘Dakshin Koshal’ in the course of time, its ‘Dakshin Koshal’ is called present Chhattisgarh. The Mahanadi of this region (whose name was ‘Chitotpala’ in that period) is mentioned in Matsya Purana [a], Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata [b] and Bharatvarsha description episode of Brahma Purana [c]. Valmiki Ramayana also has a clear description of the rugged forests of Chhattisgarh and the Mahanadi. Rishi Shringi, who resides in the ashram of Sihava mountain, had performed the Putryeshti Yagya at the place of King Dasharatha in Ayodhya, so that Lord Shri Ram along with the three brothers was incarnated on earth. During the time of Rama, sages-muni-ascetics lived in the forests here by making ashrams and during the period of his exile, Rama came here.

Its earliest mention in history is found in the travel account of the famous Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang in AD 639. It is written in his travel account that the capital of Dakshin-Kausal was Sirpur. The ashram of Bodhisattva Nagarjuna, the founder of the Mahayana branch of Buddhism, was in Sirpur (Sripur). At this time Chhattisgarh was ruled by a branch of the Satavahana dynasty. Mahakavi Kalidas is also believed to have been born in Chhattisgarh. In ancient times, this region, known as Dakshin-Kausal, was ruled by Mauryas, Satavahanas, Vakatakas, Guptas, Rajarshitulya clan, Sharabhpuri dynasties, Somvanshis, Nal dynasty, Kalachuris. The rule of regional dynasties in Chhattisgarh was also present at many places. Prominent among the regional dynasties were: the Nal and Nag dynasty of Bastar, the Somvanshi of Kanker and the Phani-Nag dynasty of Kawardha. Situated near Bilaspur district, there is a temple named Chaura in the princely state of Kawardha, which is also known as Mandwa-Mahal. In this temple there is an inscription dated 1349 AD, in which the genealogy of the kings of the Naga dynasty is given. Raja Ramchandra of the Nag dynasty got this article inscribed. The first king of this dynasty is called Ahiraj. The kingship of this Nagvansh over the area of Bhoramdev continued till the 14th century.
Geography

Chhattisgarh is bounded by Uttar Pradesh in the north and Shahdol division of Madhya Pradesh in the north-west, Orissa and Jharkhand in the north-east, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh in the south and Maharashtra states in the west. This region is a densely forested state surrounded by high and low mountain ranges. There are abundance of Sal, Teak, Saja and Bija and Bamboo trees here. Most of the Egyptian forest is found here. Some improved varieties of teak are also found in the forests of Chhattisgarh. In the middle of the Chhattisgarh region, the Mahanadi and its tributaries form a vast and fertile plain, which is about 80 km wide and 322 km long. This plain is about 300 meters above sea level. To the west of this plain is the Mahanadi and the doab of Shivnath. Within this plain area are the southern parts of Raipur, Durg and Bilaspur districts. It is also known as the rice bowl due to its abundant production of paddy. To the north of the plains is the Maikal mountain range. The highest land of Surguja is in the northeast. In the east are the small and big hills of Orissa and in the Agneya are the mountain horns of Sihava. Bastar in the south is also full of giri-garlands. Chhattisgarh has three natural divisions: the Satpuras in the north, the plains of the Mahanadi and its tributaries in the middle, and the Bastar plateau in the south. The major rivers of the state are Mahanadi, Shivnath, Kharun, Sondhur, Arpa, Parri and Indravati Rivers.[6]
creation of chhattisgarh state

The Central Provinces was formed on 1.2 November 1861. Its capital was Nagpur. Chhattisgarh was a district in the Central Provinces.

  1. In 1862, five divisions were created in the Central Province, in which Chhattisgarh became an independent division, with its headquarters at Raipur, along with the creation of 3 districts (Raipur, Bilaspur, Sambalpur) in Chhattisgarh.
  2. In 1905, the princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Changbhakhar and Korea were merged with Chhattisgarh and Sambalpur was merged with Bengal province. The first map of Chhattisgarh was prepared in the same year.
  3. In the year 1918, Pandit Sunderlal Sharma drew a clear sketch of the state of Chhattisgarh in his manuscript, so he is called the first dreamer and conceptualist of Chhattisgarh.
  4. In 1924, Raipur Zilla Parishad passed a resolution and demanded a separate Chhattisgarh state.
  5. In 1939, in the Tripuri session of Congress, Pandit Sunderlal Sharma demanded a separate Chhattisgarh.
  6. In 1946, Thakur Pyarelal formed the Chhattisgarh Exploitation Protest Forum to demand a separate Chhattisgarh, which was the first organization for the creation of Chhattisgarh.
  7. At the time of independence in 1947, Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh and Berar.
  8. In 1953
    A demand for a separate state was made before the State Reorganization Commission on linguistic basis under the chairmanship of Jal Ali.
  9. In 1955, Thakur Ramkrishna Singh, MLA of Raipur, demanded a separate Chhattisgarh in the Legislative Assembly of the Central Provinces, which was the first legislative effort.
  10. In 1956, Chhattisgarh Mahasabha was formed in Rajnandgaon district under the chairmanship of Dr. Khubchand Baghel. Its general secretary was Dashrath Choubey. Chhattisgarh was included in Madhya Pradesh with the formation of Madhya Pradesh in the same year.
  11. In 1967, Dr. Khubchand Baghel, with the help of barrister Chhedilal, formed the Chhattisgarh Brotherhood Association for a separate Chhattisgarh in Rajnandgaon, whose vice-president was Vdarika Prasad Tiwari.
  12. In 1976, Shankar Guha Niyogi formed the Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha for a separate Chhattisgarh.
  13. Chhattisgarh Sangram Manch was formed by Shankar Guha Niyogi in 1983. A separate Chhattisgarh party was formed by Pawan Diwan.
  14. In 1994, the then Saja MLA Ravindra Choubey presented a non-official resolution related to the construction of Chhattisgarh in the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly, which was passed unanimously.

16.1 On May 1998, a government resolution was passed in the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly for the creation of Chhattisgarh.

The Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha by Shri LK Advani on 17.25 July 2000. 31 July 2000 Bill was passed in Lok Sabha. The bill was introduced in Rajya Sabha on 3 August 2000 and passed in Rajya Sabha on 9 August 2000. On 25 August 2000, the then President KR Narayan approved the Madhya Pradesh State Reorganization Act.

18.1 November 2000 The state of Chhattisgarh was established under Article 3 of the Indian Constitution. Chhattisgarh became the 26th state of the country.

  1. Chhattisgarh was formed from three divisions of Madhya Pradesh, 16 districts, 96 tehsils and 146 development blocks of Raipur, Bilaspur and Bastar. Raipur was made the capital of the state and a high court was established in Bilaspur.
  2. The first meeting of the Legislative Assembly in Chhattisgarh was held from 14 December 2000 to 20 December 2000 at Jashpur Hall of Rajkumar College in Raipur.
    district

At the time of formation of Chhattisgarh state, there were only 16 districts, but in 2007 two new districts were announced which were Narayanpur and Bijapur of Bastar division. In 2012, the Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh, Dr. Raman Singh (BJP) created nine new districts. On 15 August 2019, Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Bhupesh Baghel (Congress) announced the creation of 1 new district (Gourela Pendra Marwahi) by cutting it out of Bilaspur district. At present, 04 new districts have been announced by Chief Minister Mr. Baghel, thus now there are total 32 districts in Chhattisgarh.

Kawardha District • *Kanker District (North Bastar) • Korba District • Korea District • Jashpur District • Janjgir-Champa District • Dantewada District (South Bastar) • Durg District • Dhamtari District • Bilaspur District • Bastar District • Mahasamund District • Rajnandgaon District • Raigad District • Raipur District • Surguja District • Narayanpur District • Bijapur • Bemetara • Balod District • Baloda Bazar • Balrampur • Gariaband • Surajpur • Kondagaon District • Mungeli District • Sukma District • Gaurela-Pendra-Marwahi District • Manendragarh District • Sarangarh-Bilaigarh District • Mohla-Manpur District • Sakti District

art and culture

Tribal art is very old. The official language of the state is Hindi and it is used by almost the entire population. The tribal population of the state speaks Chhattisgarhi, a dialect of Hindi.
Mahua
Famous Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi
tendu leaf collection in chhattisgarh
Literature
Main articles: Chhattisgarhi literature and prominent writers of Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh is a very rich state in terms of literary tradition. The writing of this district has been adorning the golden pages of Hindi literature since ancient times. Language is dependent on literature and literature on language. That’s why language and literature flourish together. But we see that Chhattisgarhi written literature has not developed clearly in the past. Many writers are of the opinion that this is because That in the past the writers here made Sanskrit language as the medium of writing and remained a little indifferent towards Chhattisgarhi.That is why the literature which was created in Chhattisgarhi language has happened for about a thousand years.

Many writers have divided this one thousand years in this way:

Chhattisgarhi saga era – from 1000 to 1500 AD Chhattisgarhi Bhakti Age – Middle Ages, 1500 to 1900 AD Chhattisgarhi Modern Age – 1900 to the present day

This division is done by looking at the relative excess of a trend. Another noteworthy point is that Chhattisgarhi, like other Aryan languages, had only poetic compositions till the Middle Ages.
Folklore and Folk Dance
Main article: Folk songs and folk dances of Chhattisgarh

Song and dance have great importance in the culture of Chhattisgarh. There is variety in the folk songs here. The songs are usually short and lyrical in size and the essence of the songs is the emotion gradient. Some of the prominent and popular songs of Chhattisgarh are: Bhojli, Pandwani, Jas Geet, Bharthari Folkgatha, Bamboo Geet, Gaura Gauri Geet, Sua Geet, Dewar Geet, Karma, Dadaria, Danda, Phag, Chanauni, Raut Geet and Panthi Geet. Of these, Sua, Karma, Danda and Panthi songs are sung along with the dance.

Play

Atkan-Batkan is a popular group game in Chhattisgarhi children’s games. In this game, the children sit in the courtyard, the bird, the ball

Makes a circle. After making the circle, the paws of the hands are placed in the ground. A boy takes turns taking the forefinger of his right hand as the leader, touching those opposite paws. The one whose last finger of the song ends on his palm straightens his palm. In this sequence when everyone’s palms are straight, the last child continues the song. After this song, they hold each other’s ears and sing songs.
fugdi

Fugdi is a popular game played by girls. Four, six girls gather together, sit on the umbra, alternately move the leg back and forth with the help of the toes with elasticity. The player whose feet stop moving due to exhaustion or breathlessness, moves away.
lame

It’s a game of growth tactic and trickery. It is played like chhu chhoval. In this, the players sit with their heels bent and place their palms on the knees. The child who lags behind in holding his hand, gets up in the middle and says.
Khuduwa (Kabaddi)

Khudwa Pali is a game played like Pali Kabaddi. Its rules for forming teams are different from Kabaddi. Two players become the leader. The rest of the players go to the leading players by wearing a secret name in the pair – when they say it, they reveal their secret name. The team is formed on the basis of the name selection. There is no decisive role in this, collective decision is taken.
Dandi Poha

Dandi Pauha is a competitive game played in a circle. A round circle is made of wood in the street or in the field. The player teams remain inside the circle. One player remains out of the circle. There is a rhythmic song between the players. At the end of the song, the outside player calls the inner player with the name of a wood. As soon as the name is spoken, the remaining goals come out of the circle and with the signal the players inside and outside apply force to push each other towards themselves, the one who manages to pull wins. This competition goes on till the last order.
castes
Main article: Castes of Chhattisgarh

There are many castes and tribes in Chhattisgarh, some of which are Gond, Amat, Halba, Kandra, Kanwar, Thakur, Banga, Muria, Madiya, Urao, Kamar, Bhujia, Bharia, and Biar.
tourist spot

Kharsia Rock Garden Rajim Arang = Temple City Mahamaya Temple Ratanpur (Bilaspur) Khuntaghat Dam (Bilaspur) Mari Mai Temple (Bhanvartank) nawagarh setganga Chitrakot Falls Tirathgarh Falls Indravati National Park Kanger Valley National Park Giraudhpuri Raipur Guru Ghasidas National Park Kailash Cave Gangrel Dam Sirpur Malhar Bhoramdev Temple Mainpat Bamleshwari Temple Amarkantak Maitribagh Bhilai Kanan Pendari Zoo Bilaspur Sarvamangala Temple (Korba)

Giroudpuri or Girodhpuri is a town in Baloda Bazar district in the state of Chhattisgarh state, India. It currently falls under Raipur district. This is also the higher fort than Qutub Minar. Which is called Jaitastambha.

Jal Vihar Buka – Surrounded by lush green hills on all sides of the Hasdeo River, the place is filled with the beautiful natural beauty of the submerged Minimata Bango Dam, which is located at a distance of five kilometers from the village of Madai in Korba district. There are sailors living here, who make sailings.

Kendai Falls – Kendai Falls is located 85 km from Korba district headquarter on Ambikapur road and can be reached by road. On going down the waterfall, a beautiful picture of rainbow is formed which is breathtaking. And it is surrounded by green hills all around.

Golden Island – Golden Island is seven kilometers south of Kendai Village which is accessible by road. Which is a land built on the Hasdeo river, where boatmen also live, who can get water anytime. Which is a very happy place. And there is also a picnic spot.
external links

official website

see also

Chhattisgarhi language Member of Lok Sabha of Chhattisgarh Festivals of Chhattisgarh Tribal deities of Chhattisgarh food of chhattisgarh fairs of chhattisgarh

commentary

A. ^ “Mandakinidasharna f Chitrakoota and Ch.
Tamasa Pippalisheni and Chitrotpalapi Ch.
Matsya Purana – Bharatvarsha Description Case – 50/25)

b. ^ “Chitratpala” Chitrarthan Manjulan Vahini and.
Mandakini Vaitaranin Koshan Chapi Mahanadim.”

  • Mahabharata – Bhishmaparva – 9/34 c. ^ “Chitotpala Vetravapi Karmoda Pishtika.
    Tathanyatilaghushroni Vipaya Shevla river.”
    Brahmapuran – Bharatvarsha description episode – 19/31)

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