Word Limit – 30, Max Mark – 02 Date: 03.05.2022
Q.1 Write the evidence obtained from the excavation of Chanhudaro.
Answer: (1) Model of bullock cart made of clay.
(2) Bronze toy cart. (3) Seal Product Center. (4) Evidence of the bead factory, lipstick.
Q.2 Write the difference between Shvetambara and Digambara.
- It is not necessary to discard clothes. (2) Women are entitled to Nirvana. (3) Mahavira is considered married. (4) The 19th Tirthankar was a woman.
- It is necessary to give up clothes for salvation. (2) Nirvana is not possible for women. (3) Mahavira is considered unmarried. (4) The 19th Tirthankar was a male.
Q.3 Write the works of Amirkhusro.
Answer: (1) Kiran-us-sadin (2) Miftah-ul-Fatah
(3) Nuh-Sipehar (4) Aashika-ul-Anwar (5) Tughlaqnama (6) Laila-Majnu (7) Harat Bahist (8) Tarikh-e-Delhi
Q.4 Write the names and founders of the dynasties that came under the Vijayanagara Empire.
|(1) Sangam Dynasty||Harihara and Bukka (1336–1485 AD)|
|(2) Saluva Dynasty||Narasimha Saluva (1485–1505 AD)|
|(3) Tuluva Dynasty||Veera Narasimha (1505–1570 AD)|
|(4) Aravid Dynasty||Tirumalla (1570–1650 AD)|
Q.5 Write two important sites of the Indus Civilization, from where the evidence of port was found.
Answer: (1) Lothal :- Evidence of dockyard has been found from here. Trade was conducted through the Bhogwa river.
- Sutkagendor :- It was a riverside trading port situated on the banks of river Darak.
Q.6 What were the reasons for the failure of the Dutch in India?
Answer: (1) Dutch company to be under the direct control of Dutch government.
(2) Corrupt and inept officers and employees of the company. (3) Defeated by the British in the Battle of Bedra. (4) Lack of Efficient leadership.
Q.7. What was the ‘lean elephant system’ and ‘Kamiyunti’ system.
Answer: Lean elephant system :- It was a type of bonded labor. Lean elephants were land-slaves who were at the mercy of their birth master. It was applicable in Surat Taluka of Gujarat.
Kamiyaunti system:- This practice was applicable in Orissa and Bihar. Under this, the farmers of Kamiya caste used to do lifelong slavery of moneylenders or moneylenders in return for loan interest.
Q.8. Write four magazines and their editors related to the revolutionary movement.
Answer: (1) Yugantar (1906) – Barindra Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendranath.
(2)Sandhya (1906) – Brahmabandhav Upadhyay.
3) Free Hindustan – Taraknath Das (4) Gadar – Lala Hardayal
Word Limit – 60, Max Marks – 04
09. State the geographical expansion of the Aryans in the later Vedic period.
Answer: – The Rigvedic Aryans went beyond Brahmavarta and took control over the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
– Brahshi Desh:- He named the areas ahead of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
– Madhya Desh:- He conquered the region between the Himalayas and Vindhyachal.
Aryavarta :- With the passage of time the Aryans took over the whole of India and named it Aryavarta.
10. Write the contribution of the Greeks in the post-Mauryan period.
Answer: (1) The divine principle of kingship.(2) Method of making coin from moulds. (3) The practice of marking the name, picture, date of the king on the coins. (4) Time calculation, use of Samvat, 7 days of the week. (5) 12 zodiac signs, 12 constellations, 12 months and calendar year. (6) The veil used in the play is a gift from the Greeks. (7) Development of Hellenistic style in North-Western India.
11. Write Akbar’s attitude towards different religions.
Answer: Akbar adopted a policy of tolerance towards all religions and sects.
Christian: Permission was given to build churches in Agra and Lahore. Parsi :- Gave financial assistance to priest Dastur Meher Rana. Jainism:- Gave the title of Yugpradhan to Jain Acharya Jinchandra Suri. Sikhism: Donated 500 bighas of land to Sikh Guru Ramdas.
Hindu Religion: – Abolished Jazya tax, pilgrimage of Hindus. Buddhism:- Opened a shrine for Buddhist monks. He started ‘Din-i-Ilahi’ as a synthesis of the principles of different religions.
12. Explain “Ryotwari Settlement”.
Answer: Ryotwari Settlement :- Under this land revenue system, agreements were made personally with the farmers.
Started :- Started from Madras Presidency in 1792. Initiator :- Credit goes to Thomas Munro. Area:- Madras, Bombay, East Bengal, Assam and Coorg. It was applicable in 51% area of British India. Provision: – Under this, 33% land revenue was collected directly from the farmers. The cultivator was considered to be the owner of the land he tilled. Result: – Land was taken away due to non-payment of revenue on time, due to which the farmers started turning into landless labourers.
13. Write the causes of socio-religious reform movement in 19th century India.
Answer: (1) Modern intelligentsia: – This class emerged in India. (2) Western scientific knowledge: – Influenced the Indian people. (3) Contemporary Revolution :- The French-Russian Revolution had an effect. (4) Christian Missionaries: – Attack on social evils by them. (5) Social Leadership :- Led by Raja Rammohan Roy. (6) Institutions:- Effect of various institutions like- Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj. (7) Education: – Rationalism, humanism with the influence of western education.
Word Limit – 100, Max Marks – 08
14. Describe the inscriptions of Ashoka.
Answer: The division of Ashoka’s inscriptions into 3 classes
Inscriptions: – It has 14 major inscriptions and minor inscriptions.
Large inscription Small Inscription
(1) Shahbaz Garhi – Peshawar (Pakistan) Maskau – Karnataka
(2) Mansehra – Hazara (Pakistan) Gurjara – Madhya Pradesh
(3) Kalsi – Dehradun Brahmagiri – Mysore
(4) Girnar – Junagadh Bhabu – Rajasthan
(5) Ariguri – Kurnool Netur – Mysore
(6) Jaugarh – Orissa Udegolam – Vellari
(7) Sopara – Maharashtra
Pillar inscriptions: – It has 7 long pillar inscriptions and other small pillar inscriptions (1) Prayagraj – Uttar Pradesh (2) Topra-Delhi – Haryana (3) Meerut-Delhi – Uttar Pradesh (4) Lauria-Nandangarh – Bihar (5) Lauria-Areraj – Bihar (6) Rampurwa – Bihar
Small Pillar inscriptions
Allahabad-Kaushambi, Sanchi, Sarnath, Rumandei, Nigalisagar
Cave inscription:- These are 3 caves. (1) Karna Paupar (2) Sudama (3) Vishwa ki jhopdi
15. Describe the conquest of Alauddin Khilji.
In North India
|Gujarat||Raikaran Baghela||1299 AD||Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan|
|Ranthambore||Rana Hamir Dev||1301 AD||Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan|
|Chittaud||Ratan Singh||1303 AD||Alauddin Khilji|
|Malwa||Mahalakdev||1305 AD||Ainulmulk Multani|
In South India
|Devgiri||Ramchandradev||1296 AD||Allaudin Khilji|
|Devgiri||Ramchandradev||1308 AD||Malik Kafur|
|Warangal||Pratap Rudradev||1309 AD||Malik Kafur|
|Dwarsamudra||Veer Ballaal||1310 AD||Malik Kafur|
|Pandya||Veer Pandya||1311 AD||Malik Kafur|
16. Describe the tribal revolts that took place during the British period.
|Sanyasi||1770-1800 AD||Bihar, Bengal||Kenasarkar Dirjinarayan|
|Chuaar||1768 AD||Bengal||Durjan Singh|
|Paalgir||1801-56 AD||Tamil Nadu||Veer P Kattavaman|
|Bhil||1818-46 AD||Western ghats||Sevaram|
|Ramosi||1822-41 AD||Western ghats||Chittar Singh|
|Paagal Panthi||1825-27 AD||Assam||Tipu|
|Ahom||1828 AD||Assam||Momdhar Kunwar|
|Neel||1859 AD||Bengal, Bihar||Digambar Vishwas|
|Munda||1893-1900 AD||Jharkhand||Birsa Munda|
|Paika||1817-25 AD||orrisa||Bakshi Jagabandhu|
Word Limit – 175, Max Marks – 15
17. Explain the Mauryan economy.
Answer: The Mauryan economy was strongest in ancient India.
- Agriculture :- (i) The land was the right of both the state and the farmer. (ii) Paddy, wheat, barley were cultivated. (iii) There was a good crop without rain in the devmatrika land. (iv) Plowing-sowing was done on the land of Sita by the servants, servants. (2) Irrigation :- (i) Construction of Sudarshan Lake by Chandragupta Maurya. (ii) Ashoka built a canal in Sudarshan Lake. (iii) The ponds were constructed by the Maurya rulers. (3) Animal Husbandry :- (i) Cow, bull, sheep were reared. (ii) Sheep rearing for them, horses for war. (iii) Goats and birds were reared for meat. (4) Commerce :- (i) Blacksmiths, potters, sculptors lived in the state. (ii) The cotton textile industry was prominent. (iii) Art based industries were flourishing. (5) Trade :- (i) Trade from Tamralipti port on the east coast. (ii) From the west coast by Bharuch and Sopar ports. (iii) Trade mainly with China and Arab countries. (6) Tax system :- (i) Land tax was collected from 1/4 to 1/6 of the produce. (ii) Setu tax (from fruits), Braj tax (from animals), Hiranya (cash) (iii) 4% on indigenous goods, 10% sales tax on imported goods. (7) Coins :- (i) The state currency was called Pana. (ii) Aut mudras were prevalent during this period. (i) Gold coins – gold, pada, silver – karpan. Thus the Mauryan economy was in a perfect state.
17. Throw light on the development of the Left Movement in India.
Answer: The development of the Left movement in India resulted from the development of modern industries, the economic slowdown in the middle of the two world wars and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
Beginning: – In 1920, with the announcement of the formation of the Indian Communist Party in Tarakand by Manvendra Nath Dutt. Phase I: – Three conspiracies were prominent in this (1) Peshawar Conspiracy Case – done by 10 Indians trained from Moscow Communist University. Those were arrested. (2) Kanpur Conspiracy Case- This was done by Nalini Gupta and Avani Mukherjee who returned to India in 1920. (3) Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929) – Under this, 32 people were tried to prevent the influence of the Communists.
Second phase: – In 1928, after receiving the instructions of communist international organizations, attacked the right-wing ideas of the Congress. In this period, the left wing on the question of ideology
Third Phase :- In 1935, the Communist International Conference was held. The front of the ‘anti-imperialist people’ was published in India. The Congress Socialist Party was strengthened.
Fourth Phase: – At the beginning of the Second World War, the communists opened a front against the imperialists. But did not support the Congress in the Quit India Movement.
Fifth Phase :- In this phase the Communists proposed under the Congress Cabinet Committee that India should be divided into 17 sovereign states. such as the Soviet Union.
In this way, the leftist movement continued to grow progressively till the attainment of India’s independence.
Paper – 3 (Part – 2)
Constitution & Public administration
Word Limit – 30, Max Mark – 02
01. Write the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer: (A) Disputes relating to the Union and the States- (1) One or more States against the Government of India
- Between two or more states (B) Disputes related to fundamental rights- Court issues 5 writs to protect fundamental rights.
02. What is organization? Write its type
Answer: Organization is a group of human beings organized for the fulfillment of a common purpose.
Type- (1) Formal organization- like- IAS Association (2) Informal organization- like- Social group
03. Write the role of collector in district administration.
Answer: (1) As Administrative Officer
(3) District Election Officer (5) District Magistrate (7) Supreme Peace Administrator
(2) District Development Officer (4) District Census Officer (6) Apex Revenue Officer (8) Apex Disaster Manager
04. Write the legislative powers of the Governor.
Answer: (1) Approval is necessary on all bills.
- Calling of the sessions of the Houses in the States, prorogation. (3) A joint sitting of the State Legislature or both the Houses.
- Nomination of 1/6 of the total members in the states where there is a Legislative Council.
05. What is meant by ‘Sovereignty’ and ‘Republic’?
Answer: Sovereignty:- It means that the country has complete political independence. The country is independent from external interference and is supreme internally.
Republic :- The head of state (President) is indirectly elected by the people. He does not rule on hereditary basis.
06. Who is the present Chief Secretary of Chhattisgarh, write the functions of the Chief Secretary.
Answer: The present Chief Secretary of Chhattisgarh is Amitabh Jain.
Functions- (1) There is the highest officer in the bureaucracy of the state. (2) All the funds going to the cabinet from the Chief Secretary. (3) Coordination between different departments for policy making.
Word Limit – 60, Max Marks – 04
07. Write the functions of Union Public Service Commission.
Answer: (1) Examination :- Held for All India Services, Central Services. (2) Syllabus :- Prescribing courses related to recruitment. (3) Advice :- Advises the President on various issues. (4) Fulfillment of need: – On the approval of the President or the request of the Governor. (5) Promotion :- Recommendation of promotion related to various services. (6) Report :- Report to the President relating to his work. (7) Personnel Management :- Makes recommendations for personnel management.
08. Write the difference between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of Policy.
Answer: Fundamental Rights Directive Principles of Policy
1. Has the protection of the court. 1. No refuge in court.
2. Their nature is negative 2. They are positive in nature.
3. Its subject is the person. 3. Its subject is the state.
4. Its territory is limited to citizens. 4. Their area is international.
5. Emphasis on personal development. 5. Emphasis on the development of society.
6. They have legal significance. 6. Moral order assumed.
09. Whether public interest litigation has become a means of getting publicity, Explain .
Answer: (1) Public interest litigation can be brought only when the collective interests of the people are adversely affected or the fundamental rights are violated. But at present this has become a means of obtaining cheap popularity. (2) People bring such cases under PIL which can become headlines of the newspaper. In this, his own self-interest remains hidden. (3) But except in a few cases, it has become a medium for the people to get their rights. (4) Therefore, public interest litigation cannot be considered as a mere means of gaining publicity.
Word Limit – 100, Max Marks – 08
10. Explain the union-state legislative relationship.
Answer: Subjects in the legislative powers under Union-State relations are divided into 3 lists.
(1) Union List: – There are 97 subjects in this, on which the Union can make laws, such as defence, nuclear, railways, census, postal, insurance, citizenship.
(2) State List: – There are 66 subjects of provincial importance on which the states have the right to make laws. For example, agriculture, land revenue, public health, police administration.
(3) Concurrent List: – In this both the center and the states can make laws. It consists of 47 subjects. For example, forest, wildlife conservation, civil, criminal, marriage.
(4) Residuary Powers:- The Center has the right to make laws on those subjects which are not mentioned in the above lists. For example- cyptocurrency tax.
11. Civil service neutrality is imaginary as no rational person can be neutral. Discuss.
Answer: Neutrality in civil service means not leaning towards any one side. A good civil servant should have a fair and balanced approach. Taking care of the general welfare of the people without being influenced by any particular political ideology, personal opinion or belief. Though we know a thinking person cannot be neutral but he should always try to be neutral.
Word Limit – 125, Max Marks – 10
12. Explain the process of law making.
Answer: For law making, first the bill is introduced in one of the houses. Bill in the First House: 1. First Reading :- The first reading of the Bill begins with the substitution of the Bill by the Minister. 2. Second Reading :- In this the fundamental principles of the Bill are discussed. After discussion, the house has four options. The House itself should discuss the bill in detail. Send the bill to the Select Committee of the House. Send it to a joint committee of both the houses. Distribute it to the public to know public opinion. 3. Third Reading :- The Minister requests the House to pass the Bill. Members can pass or oppose the bill.
Bills in the Second House: After a bill is passed by one house, it is sent to the other house for approval. Then there the process of all three readings is followed. a) The bill is passed and sent to the President for his assent. (b) The Bill should be passed with partial amendment. (c) The second house can reject the bill. Thus, after the consent of both the houses, the bill becomes law after the assent of the President.
Q. Write the means of parliamentary control.
Answer: 1. Question Hour:- The first hour of the sitting of the Parliament is the Question Hour. In this, MPs ask questions, ministers answer. There are three types of questions – starred, unstarred and short notice.
2. Starred question: – In this, an asterisk is made, its answers are given in writing and supplementary questions can be asked.
3. Unstarred question: – It does not have an asterisk, its answers are given orally, supplementary questions are not asked.
4. Zero Hour:- It runs for one hour after 12 o’clock. In which questions are asked without prior notice.
5. Half an hour debate :- Use this to start a debate on matters of substantial public importance.
6. Short-term debate:- MPs use to raise questions of immediate public importance.
7. Calling Attention Motion:- A calling attention motion is brought to draw the attention of the Minister to a matter of urgent public importance.
8. Adjournment Motion :- Control of parliamentary business by the above means to attract the attention of the entire House to the issue of urgent public interest.
Paper – 3, Part – 3 छत्तीसगढ़ का इतिहास/ HISTORY OF CHHATTISGARH
Word Limit – 30, Max Marks – 02
- Write the archaeological evidence of Indus Valley Civilization in Chhattisgarh.
Answer: (1) It is believed that the people of Indus civilization left for Chhattisgarh after the severe flood in Saraswati river.
- Urao folklore reveals that after the invasion of Aryans, they migrated to the forest of Surguja.
- Explain the importance of Kalyan Sai’s Jamabandi system.
(1) Kalyan Sai made Jamabandi system for land settlement.
(2) He divided it into 36 bastions under it.
(3) On the basis of this, settlement was made by Chiram in 1861 to 68.
(4) Bilaspur Gazetteer (1910) was formed on the basis of this settlement.
03. What is the Bhopalpatnam struggle in the history of Chhattisgarh?
Answer: In April 1975, Captain Blunt wanted to cross the Indravati river and go to Bhopalpatnam but was not allowed to cross the Indravati river by the gonds. It also failed due to Gond Bilinguals from what is called Bhopalpatnam struggle.
- With which event is the bravery of girl Dayavati related?
Answer: The incident of bravery of girl Dayavati is related to Tamora Jungle Satyagraha. In September 1930, in the Satyagraha to be held in Mahasamund (Tamora), the girl child Dayavati slapped the sub-divisional Officer M.P. Dubey.
05. Give a brief introduction of Raipur Dynamite incident.
Answer: Raipur Dynamite Case :- There was a plan to free the prisoners by blowing up the jail wall. Leader- Vilakh Narayan Aggarwal. Associate – Ishwaricharan Shukla, Nagardas Bavaria.
Result- This plan failed.
06. What is the description of Chhattisgarh in Samudragupta’s Dakshinapatha victory campaign?
Answer: According to Harishena’s Prayag Prashasti, Samudragupta, during his Dakshinapatha conquest, the South Kausal King Mahendra Varman and the Mahakantar King Nalvanshi King Vyaghraraj
07. What is Ghautiponi custom? Where do we get the evidence of this in Chhattisgarh?
Answer: Ghautiponi is a social evil related to women’s buying and selling. Evidence of this comes from the Kakatiya dynasty, the dynasty of Bastar region. Under this if one was unable to pay tax his wife was sold.
08. Mention the work done by Captain Sandys during the British control period.
Answer: (1) C.G. Recognizing the English year.
(2) Strengthening of the English language in official work.
(3) Developed the postal telegraph in CG.
(4) Made two tahutdari, Lormi and Tarenga.
Word Limit – 60, Max Marks – 04
09. Describe the ‘Patra Bomb Scheme’ in the freedom struggle.
Answer: Letter Bomb Scheme:
Beginning – 1932 AD,
Leader – Ramnarayan Mishra Harshul
Purpose – To mentally terrorize the people who flatter the British.
Event- Fine explosives were made by pasting phosphorus between two ink soaked papers.
Result- The news of many people getting burnt due to this incident was published. Harshal was arrested.
10. Explain the contribution of Thakur Pyarelal Singh for the merger of the princely states of Chhattisgarh with the Republic of India.
Answer: – For the merger of princely states, The Council of Action in Chhattisgarh States was formed under the chairmanship of Pyarelal Singh. Prepared a public opinion for the merger of the princely states into the Indian Union and passed a resolution. The doubts of the rulers who were hesitant in the merger were resolved. – Tha. Pyarelal’s efforts led to the merger of 14 princely states on 1 January 1948.
11. Give a brief introduction to the Halba rebellion.
Answer: Halba Rebellion 1774-77 AD.
Leader- Ajmer Singh and Halba tribe.
Purpose- To give Ajmer Singh the throne again.
Events- (1) A war of succession took place between Ajmer Singh and Dariyadev. In which Ajmer Singh was victorious. (2) Dariadev made a treaty of Kotpad with the Marathas and the Jaipur king.
Result- (1) Ajmer Singh was defeated, Halba rebels ended. (2) Bastar now came under the Marathas.
12. In what forms has the state of Chhattisgarh been described in the Mahabharata period.
Answer: (1) Chhattisgarh is described in the form of Prakkorala and Kantar in the Mahabharata period.
(2) Bhishma Parv is related to Chhattisgarh.
(3) Shishupala belonged to Chhattisgarh whose kingdom was in the Saraipali region of Mahasamund.
(4) There is a mention of Tamradhwaj and Mayurdhwaj, the kings of Ratanpur, mentioned in the name of Manipur.
(5) Rishabhatirtha (Gunji) is also related to Mahabharata.
(6) Sirpur was known as Chitrangadapur. Which was the capital of Arjuna’s son Bhabruvahana.
13.Throw light on the Maratha judicial system.
Answer: (1) The highest judicial officer in the Maratha period was the king who used to hear in rare cases.
(2) Subedar – This was the second major judicial officer of the state who used to do justice under the Suba.
(3) Kamvinsdar – This was the highest judicial officer of the pargana but could not give death sentence.
(4) Patel/Gauntia – used to do justice at the village level.
(5) Death sentence is not given to Brahmins, Bairagi and Gosai.
(6) Women were also not given capital punishment.
Word Limit – 100, Max Marks – 08
14. Throw light on the economy of Chhattisgarh during the Kalchuri period.
Answer: Agriculture system- was the main source of income in the culture period. Bi-cropping was practiced in Ratanpur and surrounding areas.
Animal Husbandry- There used to be a big animal market in Ratanpur. Cows and goats were reared. Agriculture was done by means of animals.
Occupation- Potters, carpenters, blacksmiths, etc. used to live in this area, who used to do their traditional business.
Trade- The idols made in the Ratanpur area were famous, which were traded in the nearby states.
Tax system – Various types of taxes like – Paddy, Dadranik toll, Tatkar etc. were levied. The merchants also had to pay octroi.
15. Discuss the positive impact of British rule in Chhattisgarh after the Maratha period.
Answer: (1) Administrative Reforms – Due to the Suba system in the Maratha period, administrative mismanagement had spread. Which was corrected during the British period.
(2) Economic development- Revenue system was improved, due to improvement in road, rail and communication system, economic progress increased relatively.
(3) Education- The education system improved during the British period. Women’s education got better encouragement.
(4) Religious Status- Status in religion stopped some evils. Which led to religious reformation. (5) Improvement in social and worldly condition- The work of social revival was also done during this period.
16. Mention the major works and pure campaigns done during the period of Jajalyadeva-I.
Answer: Coins- These were the first Kalchuri rulers who issued gold coins.
Temple construction- He built Vishnu temple at Janjgir. Renovation- He got the Shiva temple renovated in Pali. City construction- He founded a city named Jajlypur. Build forests, gardens and lakes there. Independence- He declared himself independent from Tripuri culture.
War :- (1) Someshwar Dev I – Jajlyadeva defeated Chhindak Nagvanshi ruler Someshwar Dev and took the family captive. But left on the request of Mata Gundmahadevi.
(2) Bhujbal- defeated Bhujbal, the ruler of Suvarnapur.
(3) Other conquests – Jajalyadeva conquered Andhra, Khimdi, Vairagar, Lanjika, Dandakpur, Nandavali.
Word Limit – 175, Max Marks – 15
17. Describe the major works done during the non-cooperation movement in Chhattisgarh.
Answer: The leaders of Chhattisgarh left their effective role in the non-cooperation movement
(1) Boycott of Courts- Lt. Pyarelal, Pt. Ramdayal Tiwari, Raghavendra Rao etc. left the practice.
(2) Renunciation of titles – Vamanrao Lakhe renounced the title of Rai Saheb. Barristers Kalyanji, Morarji, Seth Gopi Kishan also renounced the title of Rai Saheb.
(3) Election boycott- Council elections were boycotted. Those who won the election resigned.
(4) Boycott of foreign goods – On August 1, 1921, a huge procession was taken out and Holi of foreign goods was lit.
(5) Promotion of Khadi – Khadi production centers were opened. Devatadin Tiwari and Kailash Saxena opened indigenous stores near the normal school in Bilaspur.
(6) Prohibition of alcohol – picketing was held outside liquor shops. Excise auction was boycotted.
(7) Satyagraha Ashram – In 1921 to train the regional youth and to explain the importance of true non-violence.
(8) Establishment of National Schools – National schools were opened for education in Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg.
(9) National Panchayats were opened in Raipur and Dhamtari to ensure access to accessible justice.
17. How was the condition of women during the Kalchuri period?
Answer: In the period of Kalchuri, women had a high position and respect. The Kalchuri kings respected their queens. Nobhalla, Alan Devi, Lachhan Devi Honor Dynasty chiefs were women. When Raghunath Singh was attacked by the Marathas in 1741 AD, the queen hoisted the white flag showing her wisdom. Polygamy was prevalent during this period, Ratnadev had two wives Ralta and Padma. During this period, The practice of Sati was also prevalent in There is a Sati memorial in many villages. After the death of Alachha Dev, his wife had become sati. In many important decisions, the role of queens and princesses was played. For example, after defeating Someshwar Dev by Jajalyadeva, he left the family on the request of Gundamahadevi. Women were also engaged in various occupations. Due to which his condition was good. The condition of women was relatively good during the Kalchuri period, barring the evils like Sati.