Computer (English: Computer) (other Hindi names – computer, computer, computer, calculator) is actually a programmable machine that is capable of performing given mathematical and logical operations in sequence automatically. It can be directed in a planned manner to perform numerical, logical operations and various other types of calculations accurately. This instruction is called computer programming. The computer understands the instructions of the user with the help of computer programming language.

Mechanical computers have existed for many centuries, but today the term computer refers mainly to the electrically operated computer developed in the middle of the twentieth century. Since then, it has become progressively smaller in size and more efficient in terms of operation. Now the computer can be embedded inside the clock and run from the battery. Various forms of personal computing such as mobile computers, tablets, etc. have become an everyday necessity.

Conventional computers have a central operating unit (CPU) and memory for information storage. An operating unit performs arithmetic and logical calculations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations based on instructions held in memory. Peripheral or surface-mounted devices can take information from an external source and store the result of the action in memory and retrieve it when needed.

Modern computers based on integrated circuits are billions of billions of times more efficient than old-fashioned computers and take up very little space. [1] Ordinary computers are so small that they can fit into a mobile phone, and mobile computers can work with energy from a small battery. Most people hold the opinion about “computers” that personal computers in their various forms are the heroes of the information technology era. However, embedded systems, which are found in most devices such as digital MP3 players, from aircraft and toys to industrial human machines, are more popular among people.


Main article: History of computing hardware

computer equipment before the twentieth century

‘Ishango’s Bone’ Mechanical Linear Computer

Mechanical computers began to appear in the first century, which were later used for astronomical calculations in the medieval era. Mechanical linear computers were used in specialized military operations during World War II. At the same time, computers with the first electronic digital circuits were developed. They were initially the size of a large room and consumed as much electricity as the hundreds of modern private computers [3] today.

The first electronic digital computers were developed in the United Kingdom and the United States between 1940 and 1945.

To do calculations, instruments have been used for thousands of years, especially the counting devices with fingers. The earliest counting machines were probably the matching stick, the wood on which the teeth were engraved for counting, or a form of the matching stick. Later in the Middle East, calculi (clay balls, cones) were used to store records in a geographical area of ​​fertile land that resembles a crescent in shape, which were kept in undercooked and hollow earthen pots. . These were used to represent the count of goods (mostly livestock and grain). [4][5] Counting sticks | The use of counting sticks is an example of this.

Swan Pan (The number displayed on this count is 6,302,715,408)

In the beginning, the counting system was used for arithmetic operations. What we today call the Roman Countara was used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many other counting strips and bullets have been invented to calculate and calculate. A medieval European gadna house | gadna house a pied cloth was placed on the table and used as a means of adding money by driving stamps on it according to certain rules.

The Antikythera process with Ancient Greek outlines is the world’s oldest linear computer, dating from 150 to 100 BC.

Derek J. According to De-Sola, the Antikythera process is believed to be an early mechanical analog computer. [6] It was designed to calculate astronomical conditions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera ruins of the Greek island of Antikythera. [7] It was found to date back to 100 BC. It is believed that instruments with such complexity as the Antikythera process are difficult to find for the next 1000 years.

In ancient and medieval times many analog computers were built for the execution of astronomical calculations. These include the Antikythera Process of Ancient Greece and the Astrolab (about 150–100 BC), which are generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computers. Other early versions of mechanical devices include the planeisphere and other mechanical computing devices invented by Abu Rayhān al-Brūnī (Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī) (circa 1000 BCE); The equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrologer invented by Abu Isaac Ibrahim al-Zarqali (Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī) (circa 1015 BCE); astronomical analog computers of other medieval Muslim astronomers and engineers; and the astronomical clock tower of Soo Song (circa 1090 AD) during the Song dynasty.

An astronomical clock invented by al-Jazari in 1206 is considered the first programmable linear computer. [9] It depicted the orbits of the zodiac, the Sun and the Moon, with a crescent-shaped pointer passing through an entire entrance. This led to automatic gates opening every hour[10][11] and five robotic musicians who played music when struck by levers operated by camshafts attached to a water wheel. The lengths of day and night can be reprogrammed every day to adapt to the varying lengths of day and night throughout the year.[9]

Brief history of computer development

    1623 AD: German mathematician Wilhelm Schickard developed the first mechanical calculator. This calculator was capable of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.

    1642 AD: French mathematician Blaise Pascal invented the addition and subtraction machine.

    1801 AD: French scientist Joseph Marie Jaccard demonstrated a new control system for the loom. He programmed the loom, which made it possible to order the machine to perform weaving operations according to the pattern of holes in the paper cards.

    1833-71 AD: British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage built the ‘Analytical Engine’ using the Jaccard punch-card system. It can be considered the forerunner of current computers. Babbage’s thinking was much ahead of his time and his invention was not given much importance.

    1889 AD: American engineer Herman Hollerith patented the ‘Electro-Mechanical Punch Card Tabulating System’, which made it possible to work on huge amounts of statistical data. This machine was used in the US Census.

    1941 AD: German engineer Konardse invented the Z3, the first fully functional digital computer that could be controlled by a program. The Z3 was not an electronic computer. It was based on electrical switches called

It was called Riley.

    1942 AD: Iowa State College physicist John Vincent Atanasoff and his colleague Clifford Berry built a functional model of the first fully electronic computer using vacuum tubes. In this, work could be done faster than the relay. This early computer was not programmable.

    1944 AD: Professor Howard Aiken of IBM and Harvard University built the first large scale automatic digital computer ‘Mark-1’. This relay based machine was 55 feet long and 8 feet high.

    1943 AD: British scientists built an electronic computer ‘Colossus’ to break German codes during World War II.

    1946 AD: Physicist John Mauchly and engineer J. Presper Eckert created the ‘Electronic Numerical Integrated and Computer – ENIAC’ (ENIAC). This room-sized 30 ton computer had about 18,000 vacuum tubes. Iniacs could be programmed to perform different tasks.

    1951 AD: Eckert and Mauchly built the first commercial computer ‘UNIVAC’ (UNIVAC) (United States of America).

    1969-71 AD: ‘Unix Operating System’ was developed at Bell Laboratory.

    1971 AD: Intel developed the first commercial microprocessor ‘4004’. The entire computer programming unit is on the microprocessor chip.

    1975 AD: The first commercially successful personal computer ‘MITS Altair 8800’ was launched in the market. It was in kit form with no keyboard and video display.

    1976 AD: The creation of the first word programming program ‘Electric Pencil’ for personal computers.

    1977 AD: Apple launched the ‘Apple-II’, which made possible the display of color text and graphics.

    1981 AD: IBM launched its personal computer in the market, in which Microsoft’s DOS (Disk Operating System) was used.

    1984 AD: Apple launched the first Macintosh in the market. It was the first computer to have a GUI (Graphical User Interface) and a mouse.

    1990 AD: Microsoft launched the first version of its graphical user interface ‘Windows 3.0’ in the market.

    1991 AD: Linus Torvalds, a student of the University of Helsinki, invented ‘Linux’ for the personal computer.

    1996 AD: Handheld computer ‘Palm Pilot’ was launched in the market.

    2001 AD: Apple launched the Unix-based operating system ‘Mac OS X’ for the Macintosh.

    2002 AD: According to computer industry research firm Gartner Data Quest, the number of computers manufactured from 1975 to the present reached 1 billion.

    2005 AD: Apple announced that it would start using Intel microprocessors in its Macintosh computers from 2006.

    different types of computers

    IBM 370 (1972)

    IBM 370 (1972)

    HP 2116 (1974)

    HP 2116 (1974)

    IBM PC 5150 (1983)

    IBM PC 5150 (1983)

    Server VAX

    Server VAX

    NASA’s Columbia Supercomputer (2004)

    NASA’s Columbia Supercomputer (2004)

    Acer Aspire 8920 (2012)

    Acer Aspire 8920 (2012)

parts of the computer

Major Parts of Personal Computer (PC)

A computer consists of the following four parts: input device, processing device, output device and storage device. (The device is also called a yantra.)

input device

    Input devices or input devices are those devices by which instructions and data are sent to the computer. For example, keyboard, mouse, joystick, track ball etc.



        microphone or mic

        Scanner, Digital Camera

        touch-screen, touch-pad

central processing unit

    Central Processing Unit (CPU), Resource Device or Idea Device – It is the basic operational unit of the computer that works according to the data given by the input devices and sends it to the output unit. It has three parts:

        Book or Register – First of all, the data or information to be worked on is recorded in the book from the computer memory. There are different books for different processes, after the operation of the numerical and logic unit, the information is re-entered in the book and sent back to the memory.

        Numerical and Logic Unit – This unit works on the information recorded in the book according to the instructions and re-enters the result in the appropriate ledger.

        Control Unit – It controls all the activities of the Central Cosmetic Unit. For example, this unit controls the process of going from memory to information book, from there to numerical and logic unit, back to the book and from there to memory.

information storage device

64MB SDRAM used in PC

    Information storage device or security device – It saves the information used in the computer.

        Short term storage device – for storing information for a short period of time

            Random Access Memory or RAM | Random Access Memory (RAM)

            Read Memory or Read Only Memory (ROM)

        Long term storage device – for storing information over a long period of time

            hard drive or hard drive

            removable storage device

floppy disk

                Compact Disc (CD)

                Digital Video Disc (DVD)

                flexible memory storage device or flash memory storage device

                    USB Flash Drive or Flash Memory Drive

                    Flash memory card or flash memory stick

                blu-ray disc

output device

    Output device – includes all those devices from which processed information or material comes out as a human useful product. like-

        Monitor – With the help of which the processed material is displayed in a visual form.

            Screen A picture or movie appears on the screen. It is attached to the exhibitor.

        Printer- With its help the material produced is printed on paper. It is also called printer in English language.

        Siren – It is also called speaker, as the name suggests, it works to extract sound. It is used to transmit the sound generated by any process running in the computer to the user.

type of computer

The main function of the computer is to collect the given data and work according to the instructions given on it and give the result. On the basis of functionality, it is divided into the following categories – super computer, mainframe computer, mini computer, and micro computer etc. Supercomputers are the largest category, and microcomputers are the smallest.

    Supercomputers are the fastest working computers. They are capable of converting a lot of data into information in a very short time. They are used to perform large tasks, such as weather forecasting, data mining, complex simulations, design of missiles, etc. These include several microprocessors [a special small machine capable of performing the task of computing very easily and in a very short time]. To complete a complex calculation in less time, many processors have to work in parallel. This is called parallel processing. Under this, complex work is divided into small pieces in such a way that these small tasks can be done simultaneously by different processors independently.

    Mainframe computers are smaller in functionality than supercomputers but still very powerful. More than 256 people can work on these computers at a time. America’s IBM company is the largest manufacturer of mainframe computers.

    Mini computers are smaller than mainframe computers but larger than microcomputers. The functionality and cost of mini computer is more than that of micro computer. The speed of mini computer is 10 to 30 MIPS.

    Microcomputers (personal computers) are the smallest and they are also called personal computers or personal computers. Its first version was developed in 1981, in which 8088 microprocessor was used.

        desktop computer

        lap-mounted computer (laptop)

        Palmtop – Smartphone, Music player, Video player (Video player)

        tablet computer

properties of the computer

Computers are capable of doing everything we give to them. Some of their properties are as follows:


Computers work very fast, when we talk about computers, we are not talking about mini-seconds, micro-seconds, but in terms of how much work a computer can do in 10-12 seconds. Measure speed.

don’t boil

Computers never get bored and this is their best quality, because it is a device, so they are able to work for many days without any complaints.

ability to remember or store

A normal computer is also able to remember the instruction once given for a long time, and it can be rewritten and filled in as and when required.




    treasure the information


    word processing

    book publishing

    content handling

    scientific research and development


    education dissemination


    Computer Aided Design / CAD

    Computer Aided Design and Drafting / CADD

computing language

The language that the computer understands is called binary language. In fact, this device only understands whether the current is on or off. The stopping and stopping of electric current is expressed by means of 0 or 1. Therefore, to do any work on it, it has to give instructions or information in this language.

machine language

In the early days, instructions or information were given directly to the computer in binary language. It was also called yantra language (machine language) due to direct contact with the machine. This process of giving instructions or information in this way was quite complicated.

combination language

To reduce the complexity of machine language, the help of assembler was taken. It was a program that converted certain words into a set of binary signals. In this language a simple word was chosen for each process. This made it possible to write only the sign words instead of grouping the binary signals. The language which is combined by these signs and working with the help of conjunction is called assembly language.

High Level Lan


With the advent of assembly language, computer programmers certainly got convenience, but for this, the programmer needed to have complete knowledge of the computer’s hardware and its working system. So now more simple languages ​​were developed, which were called high level languages. Some of the major early languages ​​were COBOL, BASIC (BASIC), C.

In the 1960s, high-level programming languages ​​that used compilers or compilers were commonly called autocodes. Examples of autocode are COBOL and FORTRAN. The first high-level programming language designed for computers was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse. However, it was not implemented in his time.

One thing to note about high-level programming languages ​​is that these languages ​​allow the programmer to isolate and isolate from the machine. That is, unlike low-level languages ​​such as assembly or machine language, high-level programming can amplify the programmer’s instructions and trigger lots of data movements in the background without their knowledge. The responsibility and power to execute the instruction is delegated from the programmer to the machine.

Compiler and interpreter are needed to convert high level languages ​​or high level languages ​​into machine language. Compiler or compiler converts programs written in high level language into machine language permanently, while interpreter or interpreter converts them one line by line.

Advantages and disadvantages of computer

Computer network and communication have brought revolution.

the gain

    It is the best medium of communication.

    This makes it easy to share any resource.

    It is the best machine for all types of file sharing.

    This is a cheap device.

    This saves time.

    It has a lot of space to keep documents.

    It can be worked on by understanding it very easily.


    It is a waste of time if used incorrectly.

    This leads to a decrease in physical activity.

    Blood circulation is not known properly.

    Overeating and obesity.

    Complaint of pain in the back and head.

    Weakness in eyes or vision.

    Insomnia discomfort.

    If you use the laptop by keeping it on your thigh, then you can become impotent.

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